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Stoned, For All Eternity

A great deal has been written about and made much of in alternative archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors had been in a position to carve out, transport and erect large multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of properly, monumental measurement. The implication is that since there isn’t a doubting the existence of these constructions, our ancestors must of the truth is possessed an advanced technology or had help from those that did (i.e. – ‘historical astronauts’). That runs contrary to the usual model of scholarly archaeology. However the questions stay.

Perhaps I would better say what I imply by huge multi-ton stone blocks. I mean stones which can be at least several tons in weight, up to the largest identified carved (but still in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the record nonetheless for there’s, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I imply these are stones that are not trivial to toss round, even at present. And while not all major continents and nations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (including New Zealand) that still leaves loads of locations, and well-known places, that do.

How and why these megaliths had been constructed is no trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, nicely these stone monuments have been obviously crucial to them, and it’s vital to us to figure out how and why they did it. Utilizing massive stone blocks as an alternative of wooden and even small stone blocks or bricks should have served a objective despite the better hardships involved. So, why did our historical ancestors need massive stones; and how did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, in case you determine to make use of stone, then it’s vital sufficient a cloth serving a function(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical purposes an ‘eternity’. If you happen to construct one thing to last, at least back then, you employ stone, the larger the better. However for what objective did the ancients need such megalithic giants

Issues Arising: Function
These ancient societies or cultures spent an awful lot of sources to build things that were relatively peripheral to their primary needs. The Easter Islanders may survive with out those Moai statues; historic Egypt would still have been a ‘superpower’ even with out those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, huge statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – usually known as Ramesses the great), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and related observations could possibly be childsplay stone island extended to the hundreds of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments world wide which had been mainly ceremonial in operate.

It’s difficult to determine how Stonehenge contributed to the fundamental survival wants of the local inhabitants – you don’t need to assemble something of that magnitude simply to let you know what season it’s! If it’s good to mark, say the Summer time Solstice, all you want have is a historically and permanently properly marked and simply identified Level A, the place you possibly can observe some fixed construction like a rock on the Horizon, that is Level B, and when the Solar arises immediately over Point B, that is the longest day of the 12 months. There isn’t any want to engage in any type of backbreaking toil or development no matter.

If a society can afford to spend effort and time and cash on secondary tasks, say like in fashionable society numerous public artwork works in comparison with main initiatives like roads (transport), faculties (training) and hospitals (health care), then you need to conclude that that society was properly off on condition that they might divert primary assets from main initiatives to undertake initiatives of a secondary nature. Either that, or that which appears to be like to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx truly held a primary function incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in significance housing and insuring sufficient meals provides and comparable issues very important to their day-to-day survival.

Issues Arising: Logistics
There’s additionally the logistics problem. You want a large workforce that needed to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t exactly a nearby supermarket the place infinite provides could possibly be purchased. Additional, while employed on these quarrying, transporting and construction initiatives the workers couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to supply fundamentals like searching and gathering for meals and even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The employees could not have been used for serving within the military, or some other useful and essential job. All of this carving, transporting and development weren’t simply busy work designed to keep the rabble off the streets and out of bother, and slave labour wasn’t often in vogue either, opposite to many fashionable Hollywood pictures. Of course in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Nonetheless, the logistics in caving that large stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been huge, and the explanation(s) for doing so of huge significance to the powers-that-be.

Issues Arising: Methods and Means: The How!
Although our focus and curiosity is often on the development part, as in how was that finished, that is normally only one-third of the arduous yards. Take these 2.Three million blocks that make up the good Pyramid at Giza. Part One: every block had to be carved to dimension. You just didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is tough yakka and helped keep up a state of full employment. Laborious yakka Phase Two was transporting those carved blocks from the various quarries – some native, some not – to motion metropolis, the Giza Plateau. Extra full employment. The how in Section One and Two isn’t normally all that mysterious – simply bloody onerous backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the construction – Phase Three.

To me the most important thriller will not be a lot the way you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Television sequence “Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires”), but how you get a large multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to 40 or extra ft to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can all the time conceive of constructing sand or dirt ramps to haul huge lintels upwards into place, hence removing the sand or dirt after-the-fact, however when you think about it, such infrastructure is a way more labour intensive and an all-spherical major undertaking in its personal proper. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul those multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a greater volume of material to be put into place (and of course later removed) than that of the amount of fabric required to build the pyramid in question in the first place. After all if the mission is that vital, and if there’s simply no other method – effectively there’s at all times those arduous choices.

For instance for example of just how unhealthy our information of our remote historical ancestors really is, here’s a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Historic Greek World: Individuals and Locations” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably expert craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their precise building strategies, nevertheless.”

“Cranes had been virtually certainly used to assist elevate the masonry as much as the temples throughout development, although no traces of such machinery have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and indeed housed and fed the massive, highly expert workforce required to build them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let’s look at alternatives as provided in some alt-archaeological texts.
One concept typically seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these huge blocks did not begin out as large blocks, identical to a brick doesn’t begin out as a brick, but quite they had been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, but modern petrologists’ could simply detect such. Often in truth the quarry from the place the stone originated will be exactly identified, although that always raises the query then of transport, because the distances twixt quarry site and building site can be hundreds of miles. That is a problem that applies to Stonehenge in addition to among the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you really wish to go far-out, star-scout, let’s attempt antigravity! Anti-gravity is simply available in one form, dark power. Darkish vitality is that mysterious antigravity pressure that is inflicting the expanding Universe to carry on increasing at ever quicker and sooner charges, in defiance of gravity which should gradual the growth rate down. Alas, dark power, which whereas dominant over the scale of the complete Universe, is trivial domestically relative to Earth’s intense gravity discipline.

Alt-archaeology texts are stuffed with references to sound power that levitates (negates gravity) and thus large blocks of stone can be floated round and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the appropriate level.. Sound in fact could be centered. Everyone knows and respect the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, properly at the least relatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the trained human voice (or equivalent). Nevertheless, for those who crunch the numbers, the vitality required to negate gravity is means exterior the realm of which sound power can muster. Contemplating the cacophony of sounds the human race produces every day, you’d think that all of the related components would come collectively someplace, someday and ‘just so’ as to produce levitation in something, levitation observed and photographed for the record. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it’s not just a matter of manipulating massive but irregular stone blocks however fitting them collectively like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes that are instantly apparent at websites world wide, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone utilizing only different stone or copper tools shouldn’t be straightforward by any stretch of the imagination. It is not simple; it’s extremely exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all of your blocks aren’t an ordinary square block size and shape.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that though the ancients left all manner of photos behind of their every day lives and tradition, I discover it wonderful that regardless of all of these multi-thousands of photographs from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, etc. not one exhibits an actual half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple like the Parthenon that’s under development, or no matter. That’s extremely anomalous IMHO, though there are photos of historic Egyptians transporting huge stone blocks.

However, even some of these historic cultures have been puzzled as to how their even more ancient ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions inconceivable’.

There’s one thing very odd when the natural descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for the way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected large stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their last resting (truly standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” crew achieved the identical with much less elegant but with pure grunt power. Strolling stone statues are only a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Truly for some motive Easter Islanders at some point downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not totally clear other than priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can still be seen right now, mendacity in place, now lengthy neglected.

Additionally within the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an ancient metropolis of about 0.Seventy five square kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s as we speak termed Micronesia. Town is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus often referred to as the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ nonetheless are constructed up of large megalithic stone walls up to 25 feet excessive. How so Effectively the stones were carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be sincere, that makes as much sense as anything else.

I famous above that allegedly sound could levitate large stone blocks. That concept or commentary is present in both South America and ancient Egypt – massive stones are one way or the other lifted and transported by sound. I still suppose that’s extremely suspect and I feel scientists would want an actual fashionable-day demonstration. I do know I’d.

Tentative Conclusions
As I famous above, it isn’t the caving or the transport that is the true situation, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s a real problem, fairly the problem is lifting large stones straight up that I particularly puzzle over.

The puzzlement relates to our own use of stones in building tasks. We could I suppose, if we needed to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. However we do not. Your house, if it contains building stones at all, are stones which are in all probability akin to weights of simply several pounds, possibly dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we’ve got a major mystery right here Properly yes, especially when in comparison with trendy society as famous immediately above. In our modern excessive-tech age, once we do use stone as a construction material, it is in manageable bits and items. We don’t build our homes or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks because the ancients did. But when duty called, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to the next elevation when the Aswan Excessive Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historical site, even using trendy know-how it was still a significant and big effort.

A Possible Answer
Maybe we can kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we notice, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at the least); throughout Europe and the Near and Center East, Egypt and different components of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific region, there are historical megalithic constructions using stone blocks within the multi mega-ton vary. How did the ancients carve, transport, raise and position such massive stone blocks

Universal Two: Additionally all over the world, there’s a common theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – effectively you title the culture and I will assure they could have giants as a core component of their mythologies. For samplers, this is only a partial listing of giants. Properly there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Additional, you may have all manner of big trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), numerous giant apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and quite a few others, as properly as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Properly, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a younger little one, is feasible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: unattainable’ for adult people is likely to be potential for a giant(s). A giant twice as giant as a typical human may have eight instances the muscle energy, since muscles are 3-D, doubling in size, width and height; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historical Greeks usually attributed various large stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for example. Such large constructions are termed the Cyclopean walls because the Cyclopes and solely the Cyclopes may have constructed these structures. Perseus had them liable for constructing the partitions of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them building the walls of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as proof that giants must once have walked the Earth. And who constructed the enormous’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is this too far out I’m open to different strategies, but at least it would not require high-tech alien help, until of course these worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, were aliens!

Appendix: Just a few notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at 1000 to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up involves roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.

*Stonehenge: some stones are up to forty tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The well-known fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near a hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Area
*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one as much as 86 tons.

Ancient Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the nice) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. Considered one of his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to image self (at Luxor) – a hundred tons worth of stone. But that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was only just getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in question, of a thousand tons. Now that is heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is effectively often known as overkill with regards to constructing a tomb. Although the common weight of each stone block is ‘solely’ 2.5 tons, the most important slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available at 80 tons.

*Other than the nice Pyramid, different Egyptian pyramids, in actual fact most, if not all different, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, together with monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over a hundred tons.

South and Central America
*Those well-known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru has giant stones half and parcel of its construction weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a really famous Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs considerably greater than the wall calendar you cling up at house. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a famous Mayan site, especially due to Erich Von Daniken. The most important stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Further instructed readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Technology of the Gods: The Unbelievable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Thriller; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the end; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

Large Compass Print Cotton Jersey T-Shirt in BlackNational Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historic World; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Area; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:
NOVA; Secrets of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets of Lost Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s also been dozens of books/movies written/produced specifically about the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and so forth. Seek the advice of your local library.